Civil litigation encompasses most lawsuits filed by a person or company against another person or company. Most civil litigation can be separated into two categories: tort claims and contract disputes. A "tort" is a civil wrong, such as battery, assault, or negligence. Typical tort cases include car accidents, dog-bites, defamation, and medical malpractice. Contract disputes can involve sales contracts, real estate contracts, and service contracts. Typical contract actions involve non-payment for goods and services, failures to perform as agreed, or questions of whether a contract even exists.